Psychoanalysis I - Definitions and Instinct
Scientific theories appear influenced for the conditions of the social life in the economic aspects, politicians, cultural etc. They are historical products created by concrete men who live its time and contributes or radically modify the development of science. Sigmund Freud (1856-1839) was a Viennese doctor whom changed in an extreme way the imagination about the psychic life.
His contribution is comparable to Karl Max in the comprehension of the historical and social phenomena. Freud dared to place the [mysterious processes] of the psychism, its [obscure regions], that are, the fancies, dreams, the black holes, the interiority of the man, as scientific questions. The systematic inquiry of these problems took Freud to the creation of the Psychoanalysis.
The Term Psychoanalysis is used to design itself as a theory, a method of inquiry and one practical professional. Theory is characterized for a set of wisdom systemized on the functioning of the psychic life. Freud published an extensive letter work, during all his life, telling his discoveries and formulating general laws on the structures and the functioning of psyche human being.
Psychoanalysis (while an inquisitive method) is characterized for the interpretative method, that searches the hidden meaning of what is manifest through action and speech or the imaginary productions, as dreams, deliriums, free associations.
Practical professional mention the form to the psychological treatment (the analysis), that aims at the cure or self-knowledge.
Analytical psychoanalysis is met in the paradoxical position of frequent rejected as a scientific system (at the same time that is accepted for its remarkable contributions for science) gave contributions for some fields, it stimulated the thought and the comment in many areas, until then neglected, of psychology: the meaning of the unconscious factors in determination of the behavior; the general importance of the sex in the normal and abnormal behavior; the importance of the conflict of infancy, the irrational and the emotional one.
Freud himself carried through fine comments during a long life of untiring and daily work and contributed with hypotheses or facts (there isnít possible to say still which are what) on vast areas of the human behavior. Instinct, to Freud, is the representative of the stimulations.
The psychologists interest to verify new sources of motivation derived from the satisfaction of the instincts and not them somatic processes as source from the instincts, that is the source of comment of the biologist.
Some new originated sources of motivation of the satisfaction of the instincts are the punctions. We do know now (and thanks to Freud) that instinct has biological nature and hereditary and the punction results of a shunting line of the instinct. The sexual punction becomes a shunting line of the instinct, as a baby who receives milk from the mother. After this milk its hunger and therefore it has the instinct to suck, but the contact with the breast also provides it pleasure, that is a shunting line of the instinct. Libido is the deriving energy of the instincts, that is deeply related with the pleasure and resultant affectionate impulses of the punctions. Libido is any instinctive or pulctional energy that has as sources sexual stimulations that appear in the body.
Human being is a system that operates in function of the instincts and punctions in the search of the pleasure. There are different kinds of instincts as the instinct of death, visas in life and sadism cases. Life instincts lead to the conservation of the person: hunger, headquarters, escape, pain, sex. Instincts of death have as objective a return to a previous state of the substance: self-destruction. Aggression also can be part of the life instinct: competition, fights.
Instincts and punctions, at the most common, cannot find its exempt satisfaction. Therefore, it creates adjustment mechanisms to tolerate the frustration, alliviating or defending individuals from tensions, distress and anxiety. Conflicts generate intense emotional reactions, as anxiety, that is a compound of fear, apprehension and hope - a feeling of real or imaginary threat to the individual security.
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